Published: Fri, October 05, 2018
Sci-tech | By Carrie Guzman

Trio win Nobel Chemistry Prize for research harnessing evolution

Trio win Nobel Chemistry Prize for research harnessing evolution

Frances Arnold, George Smith and Gregory Winter will get the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2018.

USA biochemical engineer Frances Arnold, speaks after winning the Millennium Technology Prize 2016. She studied engineering at Princeton University and received her Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley.

"Pretty much every Nobel laureate understands that what he's getting the prize for is built on many precedents, a great number of ideas and research that he is exploiting because he is at the right place at the right time", he said. "Professor Arnold's scientific excellence and intellectual leadership exemplify values essential to our University, and all of us at Princeton are celebrating her receipt of this well-deserved honor".

The Guardian's Nicola Davis reports that Arnold's directed evolution of enzymes (proteins that catalyze, or accelerate, chemical reactions) essentially boils down to the introduction of genetic mutations that allow enzymes to perform more efficiently or in ways that they normally wouldn't.

The uses of enzymes developed by Arnold include more environmentally-friendly manufacturing of chemical substances, such as pharmaceuticals and the production of renewable fuels for a greener transport sector. What's more, if known proteins were engineered to appear on the phage, scientists could see which genes were involved.

"You have to think it's insane", she said.

In this way the bacteriophages can be used as a screening library for potentially therapeutic proteins. "I would've had a more blossoming end to my career". I don't know how else she can do what she does.

The Nobel Prize in Literature has been postponed because of the institution that chooses the laureate being embroiled in a sexual assault scandal.

Who won the 2017 chemistry Nobel? To date, the committees have awarded Nobels to 844 men and 49 women.

University students' union bans clapping over claims it can trigger anxiety
An NUS spokeswoman said: "The hand gesture referred to as "jazz hands" is the British Sign Language vocabulary for applause". This policy has no bearing on those events which make up the majority of a packed calendar at the Students' Union.

Marie Curie, Joliot-Curie's mother, shared half of the prize with her husband and fellow physicist Pierre Curie in 1911 for "the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel".

This year's winners used a technique called directed evolution to create new proteins.

Enzymes "are what all we organisms use to make our chemicals".

MU, under the leadership of Cartwright and System President Mun Choi, has begun a major push to double research spending and build a new laboratory to bring discoveries in medicine into clinical use.

Robinson said Wednesday that directed evolution of enzymes and antibody technology "are now transforming medicine".

"For thousands of years we humans have used selective breeding to create animals and plants with properties that have been useful for us". And a lot of her work has benefits in life sciences, apart from applications in biofuels, and dozens of other applications. "It is a routine tool, now, used in genetic engineering, and she was the first to think of it".

"I would say the day has been turned upside down", said Smith, who retired in 2015 from the University of Missouri. I think Frances was certainly met with a degree of resistance at the time.

"I can alter anything that's encoded in DNA", Arnold-the first woman, and eighth living scientist, to be elected to all three of the U.S. National Academies-told Science in 2008. He is the Curators' Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri.

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